THE MONGOL EMPIRE
The Mongols were little more than a loose confederation of rival clans until the birth of Temujin in 1162 .Overcoming conditions that would have crushed lesser men, Temujin rose to become the strongest ruler on steppe , and in AD 1206 founded the Mongol empire and took the title ‘Chinggis Khaan ‘.He was already 44 years old since the age of 16,when his bride was kidnapped ,he had been fighting one clan feud and tribal war leaders of each clan as he defeated them and incorporating the survivors into his own following .Through this harsh but effective way,Chinggis Khaan forced peace onto the clans around him .
He named the new state Great Mongol nation.His followers totaled probably under million people ,and from this he created an army of nine units of 10.000 and a personal guard of another 10.000.With a nation smaller than the workforce of modern corporation .In battle of Chinggis Khaan was merciless ,but to those who surrendered without fighting he promised protection,religious freedom ,lower taxes and a heightened level of commerce prosperity.His law and incorruptible officials did more to attract people into his empire than his military power.Based on military success and good laws,his empire continued to expand after his death until stretched from Korea to Hungary and from India to Russia .
CHINGGIS KHAA N :
MAN OF THE MILLENNIUN
Known to the world as a conqueror ,Mogolian remmember Chinggis Khaan as the great lawgiver and proudly refer to him as the Man of the Millennium ,a (title bestowed on him by the Washington post in 1995 ). His laws derived from practical considerationsmore than ideology or religion . After the abduction of his wife Borte ,Chinggis recognized the role of kidnapping in perpetuation feuds among clans and outlawed it .Similarity,he perceived religious intolerance as being a source of the violence i sedetary society and so decreed religious freedom for everyone and exempted religious and priests from taxes. To promote trade and communications ,Chinggis built an international network of postal stations that also served as hostels for merchants .He decreased and standardised the taxes on goods so that they would not be repeatedly taxed .Under these laws the Mongol empire formed the first intercontinental free -trade zone.In an era when ambassadors served as hostages to be publicity tortured or killed during times of hostilities ,Chinggis Khaan ordered that every ambassador be considered as an envoy peace.
This law market the beginning of diplomatic immunity and international law.Today nearly every country accepts and promotes ,at least i theory,the ideas and polices behind the” Great ” law of Chinggis Khaan
After Chinggis Khaan’s death his second son Ogedei ruled frin 1229 to 1241 ,following by Ogedei’s widow .Toregene Khatun and the brief 18-month reign of Ogedei’s son Guyuk from a 1246 trough 1248.Tensions began to develop among the branches of his descendants ,broke into open civil war when Arik Boke and Kublai each claimed the office of the Great Khan after the death of their brother Monkhe in 1259 .Arik Boke controlled all of Mongolia,including the capital Karakorum,and enjoyed widespread support from the ruling Borjin clan.Yet Kublai controlled vast riches of Northern China,and these proved far more powerful.Kublai defeated his brother who then perished under suspicious circumstances in captivity.Kublai won the civil war and solidified his hold over China,but it cost him his empire. Although they still claimed to be a single empire,the nation of Chinggis Khaan had been reduced to a set of warring sum-empires.
WARRIOR QUEENS OF MONGOLIA
Chinggis Khaan’s greatest disappointment in life was the quality of his sons,but the greatest pride was in the daughters .He left large sections of his empire under the control of his daughters,although they gradually lost power to his sons.The Mongol women presented a strange sigh to the civilizations they helped conquer.They rode horses,shot arrows from their bows and commanded the men and women around them. In China,the Mongol women rejected foot binding ,in the Muslim world ,they refused to wear veil.At Ogedei’s death ,probably in an alcholic stupor,in 1241 his widow Toregene assumed complete power .She replaced the ministers with her own,the most important of whom was another women,Fatima a Tajik or Persian captive from a Middle Eastern campaign.In addition to the rule of Toregene and Fatima from Karakarum in Mongolia,two of the other three divisions of the empire also had a female governers.Only the Golden Horde of Russia remained under male rule.Never before had such a large empire had been ruled by women.Toregene passed power on to her inept son Guyuk ,but he died mysteriously within 18 moths and was replaced by his widow Oghul Ghamish,who had to to face Sorkhogtani the most capable women in the empire.With the full support of her fours sons ,whom trained for this moment ,Sorkhogtani organized the election of her eldest son Monkh on 1 July 1251.So great moment ,Sorkhogtani then surely women would would have to be judged as the superior sex.In the late 15 th century a new conqueror arose determined to restore to empire .Known to the grateful Mongols as Manduhai the Wise Queen ,she took the battlefiled and united the scattered tribes into single nation .She fought even while she was a pregnant and once injured while carrying twins .She and twins survived ,and her army won the battle.Faced with Manduhai’s tenacity and skill ,the Chinese frantically expanded the Great Wall. Although she left seven sons and three daughters,the era of the great warrior queens of Mongolia had passed ,but Mongolian’s still watch and wait for a new Mandukhai.
Resource : Lonely Planet